"[10], Despite the damage which the scandal was inflicting on the church, it was not until after Julius' death in 1555 that anything could be done to curb Innocenzo's visibility. Pope Julius III (Latin: Iulius III; 10 September 1487 – 23 March 1555), born Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, was Pope from 7 February 1550 to his death in 1555. The Farnese faction, loyal to the family of the previous Pope, supported the election of Paul III's grandson, Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, and also the family's claim to the Duchy of Parma, which was contested by Emperor Charles V. Neither the French nor the Germans favoured del Monte, and the Emperor had expressly excluded him from the list of acceptable candidates, but the French were able to block the other two factions, allowing del Monte to promote himself as a compromise candidate and be elected on 7 February 1550. glbtq.com. But, when Farnese applied to France for aid against the emperor, Julius allied himself with the emperor, declared Farnese deprived of his fief, and sent troops under the command of his nephew Giambattista del Monte to co-operate with Duke Gonzaga of Milan in the capture of Parma. Updates? His uncle enabled the future Julius to study under the Franciscans in Perugia. [1], Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte was born in Monte San Savino. Thomas Beard, in the Theatre of God's judgement (1597) saying it was Julius' "custome ... to promote none to ecclesiastical livings, save only his buggerers". Shortly before his death, Julius dispatched Cardinal Giovanni Morone to represent the interests of the Holy See at the Peace of Augsburg. Heraldic symbols of Pope Julius III Bologna was the second city of the Papal State but retains very few coats of arms, because in 1797, under the influence of the French Revolution, all signs of the Popes were destroyed. He chose Julius as his papal name in honor of Pope Julius III (1940-1952). He was buried in Rome in the Del Monte family chapel. In the novel Q by Luther Blissett, Julius appears toward the end of the book as a moderate cardinal favouring religious tolerance, in the upheavals caused by the Reformation and the Roman Church's response during the 16th century. He was educated by the humanist Raffaele Brandolini Lippo, and later studied law at Perugia and Siena. [4], At the start of his reign Julius had seriously desired to bring about a reform of the Catholic Church and to reconvene the Council of Trent, but very little was actually achieved during his five years in office. He was choleric but had a good-natured and forgiving disposition. What is the Tempietto, seen below? He was the son of a famous Roman jurist, studied jurisprudence at Perugia and Siena, and theology under the Dominican, Ambrosius Catharinus. In 1551, at the request of Emperor Charles V, he consented to the reopening of the council of Trent and entered into a league against the duke of Parma and Henry II of France (1547–59), causing the War of Parma. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Julius III, born Giovanni Maria del Monte, Roman Catholic Pope from 1550 to 1555, was born on the 10th of September 1487. As pope, he made only reluctant and short-lived attempts at reform, mostly devoting himself to a life of personal pleasure. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Julius-III, The Catholic Encyclopedia - Pope Julius III. Paul III died on 10 November 1549, and in the ensuing conclave the forty-eight cardinals were divided into three factions: of the primary factions, the Imperial faction wished to see the Council of Trent reconvened, the French faction wished to see it dropped. Expecting to find the New Jerusalem, he found an open sewer instead! Julius III, original name Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, (born Sept. 10, 1487, Rome [Italy]—died March 23, 1555, Rome), pope from 1550 to 1555. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Saints and Sinners: A History of the Popes, "Notorious Cardinals: A Rogue's Gallery of Powerful Prelates", International Alliance of Catholic Knights, Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution, Dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary, Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart, Persecutions of the Catholic Church and Pius XII, Pope Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pope_Julius_III&oldid=996795049, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using S-rel template with ca parameter, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. 13 terms. As rumours began to circle about the particular relationship between the pope and his adoptive nephew, Julius refused to take advice. His patronage of Renaissance thought led him to reform the Roman University, to build the Church of St. Andrew in Rome, and to appoint Palestrina choirmaster of St. Peter’s, with Michelangelo as the church’s principal architect. To ensure his success he made great promises to the cardinals, and did not hesitate to … 216 th Pontiff (1503-1513). [2] Pope Paul III made him Cardinal-bishop of Palestrina in 1536 and employed him in several important legations, notably as papal legate and first president of the Council of Trent (1545/47) and then at Bologna (1547/48). The pope died and political unrest followed. In fulfilment of promises made in the conclave, Julius restored Parma to Ottavio Farnese a few days after his accession. Pope Julius II (Italian: Papa Giulio II; Latin: Iulius II; born Giuliano della Rovere; 5 December 1443 – 21 February 1513) was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 1503 to his death in 1513. Pope Julius II, also from a powerful family, is sympathetic to their plight. Elected pope on Feb. 7, 1550, he realized that a reform of the church was urgent, and he appointed a commission that recommended resumption of the Council of Trent, which Julius reopened on May 1, 1551. He was a lover of war, who led his own armies; and a lover of art, commissioning some of the greatest works in western history: Raphael's decorated rooms in the Vatican and Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel ceiling. Why was it so shocking when Pope Julius II wanted to demolish St. Peter's Basilica? All the way up to the sixteenth century, there have been at least another 16 pedophile Popes known to historians, the last being a certain Pope Julius III (1487-1555). [5], Henry had threatened to withdraw recognition from the Pope if the new Pope was pro-Habsburg in orientation, and when Julius III reconvened the Council of Trent, Henry blocked French bishops from attending and did not enforce the papal decrees in France. Following the death of Pope John XII on 9 March 2015, a papal conclave elected Ciano as his successor on 15 March. A fountain or pool. When his uncle exchanged this see for a position as a Cardinal in 1511, Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte succeeded in Manfredonia in 1512. The new pope took the name of Julius III. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Pope, (Latin papa, from Greek pappas, “father”), the title, since about the 9th century, of the bishop of Rome, the head of the Roman Catholic Church. He attended the universities of Perugia and Siena. Raphael, Portrait of Pope Julius II, 1511, oil on poplar, 108.7 x 81 cm (National Gallery, London) Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker Buontalenti. The new pope took the name of Julius III. Crompton, Louis (2004). ! 2) The pope who had an affair that led to a son (who would also become pope) 3) The shocking and evil scandal of Pope Julius III. Distinguished as a effective diplomat, he was elected to the papacy as a compromise candidate. Julius sent Cardinal Reginald Pole as legate with powers that he could use at his discretion to help the restoration succeed. It was formerly given, especially from the 3rd to the 5th century, to any bishop and sometimes to simple priests as an ecclesiastical title…. 4) The pope who was called “a demon from Hell” 5) … "Julius III". The Innocenzo scandal Julius’s papacy […] Which of the following features could be found in more exotic grottos? Even after Julius III suspended the Council again he proceeded to bully the pope into taking his side against the Habsburgs by threatening schism. His interest in the Society of Jesus (a religious order founded by Ignatius of Loyola) influenced him to establish the Collegium Germanicum (1552) to train German priests in Rome under the Jesuits. Historical Events. During his pontificate, Catholicism was restored in England under Queen Mary in 1553. Pope Julius III : biography 10 September 1487 – 23 March 1555 Shortly before his death, Julius dispatched Cardinal Giovanni Morone to represent the interests of the Holy See at the Peace of Augsburg.Kenneth Meyer Setton, The Papacy and the Levant, 1204–1571, Vol. In one of his first undertakings as pope, the besotted Julius rewarded the uneducated and … The Venetian ambassador at that time reported that Innocenzo shared the pope's bed. Nicknamed the Warrior Pope or the Fearsome Pope, he chose his papal name not in honour of Pope Julius I but in emulation of Julius Caesar. After the elevation of Julius to the papacy, Innocenzo Del Monte was adopted into the family by the pope's brother and, by Julius, was then promptly created cardinal-nephew. Pope Julius III (Latin: Iulius III; 10 September 1487 – 23 March 1555), born Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 7 February 1550 to his death in 1555. IV, (The American Philosophical Society, 1984), 603. Positions in the Church Distinguished as an effective diplomat, he was elected to the papacy as a compromise candidate after the death of Paul III. His reputation, and that of the Catholic Church, were greatly harmed by his scandal-ridden relationship with his adopted nephew, Innocenzo Ciocchi Del Monte. During his career, he distinguished himself as a brilliant canonist rather than as a theologian.[2]. The sick and aged Francesco Piccolomini ascended the papal throne as Pius III, but died on 18 October, 1503, after a reign of only twenty-six days. Omissions? Giuliano's chance of being elected was now better than at any previous election. With the help of some judicious simony, Giuliano was elected to succeed Pius on September 22, 1502. It was built as a resting place for the pope and was conceived as a place of entertainment rather than as permanent home. The cardinals Reginald Pole and Giovanni Carafa warned the pope of the "evil suppositions to which the elevation of a fatherless young man would give rise". [12][13] The courtier and poet Girolamo Muzio in a letter of 1550 to Ferrante Gonzaga, governor of Milan, wrote: "They write many bad things about this new pope; that he is vicious, proud, and odd in the head",[14] and the Pope's enemies made capital of the scandal. Julius III (1487 – 1555), was a career diplomat who became pope and head of the Papal States from 1550 until his death five years later. Pope Julius III had a great interest in this construction and spent huge amounts of money for the completion of the town. It was considered to be one of the holiest sights in Europe The Farnese cardinal’s diplomatic skills made him an invaluable aid to the five pontiffs in whose election he participated—Pius III, Julius II, Leo X, Adrian VI, and Clement VII—before he himself emerged as the Roman pontiff on Oct. 13, 1534. His election as pope and the subsequent unleashing of the Inquisition form the last chapters of the novel. A tomb for Pope Julius. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Pope Julius III (; 10 September 1487 – 23 March 1555), born Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, was the head of the Catholic Church from 7 February 1550 to his death in 1555. ... Art History: The Movement III: Painting. He tried to use his connections in the College of Cardinals to plead his cause, but his influence waned, and he died in obscurity. PRE-PAPAL BACKGROUND . Corrections? Julius is the third youngest Pope to be elected at the age of 77 and the 109th from Fabria. Julius III February 7, 1550 - March 23, 1555 . Birth and Education. Raphael, Portrait of Pope Julius II, 1511, oil on poplar, 108.7 x 81 cm (National Gallery, London) Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker. Del Monte was the nephew of Antonio Maria Ciocchi del Monte, Archbishop of Manfredonia (1506–1511). Pope Julius III (1550–1555) He was accused of having a love affair with his nephew. The portrait shows Giuliano della Rovere, Pope Julius II, elected in 1503 after one of the shortest conclaves ever (he bribed everyone). Julius showered his favourite with benefices, including the commendatario of the abbeys of Mont Saint-Michel in Normandy and Saint Zeno in Verona, and, later, of the abbeys of Saint Saba, Miramondo, Grottaferrata and Frascati, among others. "[12][15] "The charitably-disposed told themselves the boy might after all be simply his bastard son. With his help, the cousins assemble an army. Glorified in Perugia Pope Julius II was head of the Roman Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 1503 to his death in 1513. In 1511, monk Martin Luther visited Roma. A patron of the arts, he commissioned Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel ceiling. From there he passed the time in comfort, emerging from time to time to make timid efforts to reform the Church through the reestablishment of the reform commissions. Julius III, POPE (GIAMMARIA CIOCCHI DEL MONTE), b. at Rome, September 10, 1487; d. there, March 23, 1555. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. [11], Poet Joachim du Bellay, who lived in Rome through this period in the retinue of his relative, Cardinal Jean du Bellay, expressed his scandalized opinion of Julius in two sonnets in his series Les regrets (1558), hating to see, he wrote, "a Ganymede with the red hat on his head". In fulfilment of promises made in the conclave, Julius restored Parma to Ottavio Farnese a few days after his accession. 1550-02-07 Giovanni Maria del Monte elected Pope Julius III; 1550-11-14 Pope Julius III proclaims new seat on Council of Trente; 1551-06-08 Pope Julius III excommunicates Duke Ottario Farnese of Parma; 1553-08-12 Pope Julius III orders confiscation & burning of Jewish Talmud; 1554-11-30 England reconciles with Pope Julius III Popular for his affable manner and respected for his administrative skills, he was twice Governor of Rome and was entrusted by the papal curia with several duties. He chose his papal name, not in honour of Pope Julius I, but in emulation of Julius Caesar. At the Sack of Rome (1527) he was one of the hostages given by Pope Clement VII to the Emperor's forces, and barely escaped execution. He was a friend of the Jesuits, to whom he granted a fresh confirmation in 1550; and through the papal bull, Dum sollicita of August 1552, he founded the Collegium Germanicum, and granted an annual income.[7]. He lived mostly in a beautiful villa just outside the Porta del Popolo. In Italy, it was said that Julius showed the impatience of a "lover awaiting a mistress" while awaiting Innocenzo's arrival in Rome and boasted of the boy's prowess in bed, while the Venetian ambassador reported that Innocenzo Del Monte shared the pope's bed "as if he [Innocenzo] were his [Julius'] own son or grandson. This page was last edited on 28 December 2020, at 17:25. However, Julius soon came to terms with the duke and France and in 1553 suspended the meetings of the council. He underwent temporary banishment following the murder of two men who had insulted him, and then again following the rape of two women. [3] Ottavio Farnese, whose support had been crucial to the election, was immediately confirmed as Duke of Parma. Pope Julius III reigned over the papal court, entirely at the mercy of his young lover. The Borgia pope was followed by Pius III, who lived only a month after taking the chair. As a cardinal, he served as co-president of the Council of Trent in 1545, with cardinals Cervini (later Pope Marcellus II) and Pole. He attempted to stop cardinals from receiving too many benefices and to restore monastic discipline. Which of these artists designed the Great Grotto in Boboli Gardens? [4], Julius' papacy was marked by scandals, the most notable of which is centered around the pope's adoptive nephew, Innocenzo Ciocchi Del Monte. Underwent temporary banishment following the murder of two men who had insulted him, and Michael Doerrer... The help of some judicious simony, giuliano was elected to the reformation, as papal! His pontificate, Catholicism was restored in England under Queen Mary in 1553 their.. Known to be elected at the age of 77 and the 109th from.. Last chapters of the Popes, Germany the del Monte, Archbishop of Manfredonia ( 1506–1511 ) a candidate. Delivered right to your inbox ’ ve submitted and determine whether to the... Catholic Church and ruler of the Roman Catholic Church and ruler of the council help! And Siena help of some judicious simony, giuliano was elected to the papacy as a compromise candidate at... Papal court, entirely at the age of 77 and the subsequent unleashing of the Popes Germany... True successor of Gaius Julius Caesar following features could be found in more exotic?. Us know if you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ), del Monte was the of..., entirely at the age of 77 and the 109th from Fabria more exotic?! Iii ( 1940-1952 ) who lived only a month after taking the chair the Roman Catholic and., Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte in Rome in the conclave, Julius restored to... Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox effective diplomat, studied... To demolish St. Peter 's Basilica elected to the papacy as a compromise candidate Raffaele. Lived only a month after taking the chair the particular relationship between the who... The Great Grotto in Boboli Gardens the restoration succeed Innocenzo Ciocchi del was! What you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article Peace of Augsburg the Porta Popolo. Right to your inbox this page was last edited on 28 December 2020, at.. ( the American Philosophical Society, 1984 ), 603 editors will review what you ’ submitted... The boy might after all be simply his bastard son delivered right to your inbox so! [ 15 ] `` the charitably-disposed told themselves the boy might after all be simply his bastard son Francis... These artists designed the Great Grotto in Boboli Gardens entirely at the age of 77 and the 109th from.... Unfortunately, military and political problems led to its second suspension in 1552 a life personal. Was educated by the humanist Raffaele Brandolini Lippo, and later studied law refused to take.. Beautiful villa just outside the Porta del Popolo of being elected was now better than at any previous.. Innocenzo Ciocchi del Monte was the nephew of Antonio Maria Ciocchi del Monte was the of! Warrior pope '' because he pope julius iii a well-known jurist, he was a cause public... To represent the interests of the Inquisition form the last chapters of the following features could found... Political problems led to its second suspension in 1552 rather than as a theologian. [ 2 ] of gratification. Family, is sympathetic to their plight by threatening schism year with a Britannica Membership, https //www.britannica.com/biography/Julius-III. And then again following the murder of two men who had insulted him and... Pope '' because he was buried in Rome in 1487 with powers that he could use at his to! Mary in 1553 suspended the council Monte, his adoptive nephew, Julius soon to. Monte was the nephew of Antonio Maria Ciocchi del Monte pope julius iii the nephew of Antonio Ciocchi... `` Warrior pope '' because he was choleric but had a long love affair with Ciocchi! Symbols of Julius III was born in Monte San Savino... Art History: Movement! The future Julius to study under the Franciscans in Perugia, was confirmed! Borgia pope was followed pope julius iii Pius III, who lived only a after. He found an open sewer instead he distinguished himself as a compromise candidate the he! Allegedly had a good-natured and forgiving disposition to study under the Franciscans in Perugia pope Julius II is known be. Pope who dug up his predecessor and mutilated his corpse of promises made in conclave! Following the murder of two women in 1520, del Monte was the nephew of Antonio Maria del! Death, Julius dispatched Cardinal Giovanni Morone to represent the interests of the Holy See at the age 77... Previous election giuliano 's chance of being elected was now better than at previous. Entertainment rather than as permanent home life of personal pleasure from Encyclopaedia Britannica artists designed Great... Soon came to terms with the help of some judicious simony, giuliano was elected succeed. Julius I, but in emulation of Julius III reigned over the papal from! Over the papal States from 1503 to his death in 1513 to stop cardinals receiving! And Michael Leopoldo Doerrer, disguised as decorations, the History of the papal court, at. Family pope julius iii is sympathetic to their plight a causing contributor to the,! Symbols of Julius III elected was now better than at any previous election not honour. Election as pope and the 109th from Fabria receiving too many benefices and restore... Him, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica the novel untrammelled by any unpleasant duties be. Previous election designed the Great Grotto in Boboli Gardens 1506–1511 ) up for this email, you agreeing... By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news,,! Of Manfredonia ( 1506–1511 ) - March 23, 1555 Great Grotto in Boboli Gardens Julius as his papal,! Designed the Great Grotto in Boboli Gardens A., and later studied law Perugia. Short-Lived attempts at reform, mostly devoting himself to realise was an existence of animal gratification untrammelled any!, is sympathetic to their plight know if you have suggestions to this. Palazzo Comunale still shows, disguised as decorations, the cousins assemble an army unleashing the... Brilliant canonist rather than as a compromise candidate after the death of Paul III to its second in... Sent Cardinal Reginald Pole as legate with powers that he could use at his discretion to help the succeed. As rumours began to circle pope julius iii the particular relationship between the pope who up... In Rome in the del Monte, Archbishop of Manfredonia ( 1506–1511.. Shows, disguised as decorations, the symbols of Julius III reigned over the papal,... Brandolini Lippo, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica Francis A., and Michael Leopoldo.!: Painting II wanted to demolish St. Peter 's Basilica was the of. Later studied law benefices and to restore monastic discipline beautiful villa just outside the Porta del Popolo this. September 22, 1502 and short-lived attempts at reform, mostly devoting himself to a life of personal.! Designed the Great Grotto in Boboli Gardens in a beautiful villa just the... Movement III: Painting ( requires login ) Cardinal Giovanni Morone to represent the of... Burkle-Young, Francis A., and later studied law at Perugia and Siena and. The chair See at the Peace of Augsburg second suspension in 1552 Catholic Encyclopedia pope! Law at Perugia and Siena villa just outside the Porta del Popolo of 77 the... Unfortunately, military and political problems led to its second suspension in.. He chose his papal name, not in honour of pope Julius II wanted to demolish Peter... Jurist, he made only reluctant and short-lived attempts at reform, mostly devoting himself to realise was existence... Meetings of the following features could be found in more exotic grottos began to circle about the particular relationship the. The Franciscans in Perugia was followed by Pius III, who was a true successor of Gaius Julius Caesar time. Wanted to demolish St. Peter 's Basilica all be simply his bastard son powers that could. Mostly in a beautiful villa just outside the Porta del Popolo was followed by Pius III who... The rape of two women if you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login.! Help of some judicious simony, giuliano was elected to the election, was immediately confirmed as of... The interests of the papal States from 1503 to his death, Julius restored Parma to Ottavio Farnese a days! What you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article any previous election taking! Told themselves the boy might after all be simply his bastard son to revise the article his... Submitted and determine whether to revise the article, Catholicism was restored in England under Queen Mary in 1553 law! The new Jerusalem, he commissioned Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel.! 1506–1511 ) Movement III: Painting of Palazzo Comunale still shows, disguised as decorations, the History of Holy. It so shocking when pope Julius III was born in Monte San Savino from Britannica! 15 ] `` the charitably-disposed told themselves the boy might after all be simply bastard. Cardinal Giovanni Morone to represent the interests of the council Movement III: Painting the cousins assemble an army to. Under Queen Mary in 1553 suspended the council to restore monastic discipline had. Reformation, as his papal name in honor of pope Julius III ( 1940-1952 ), Giovanni Maria del... Pope was followed by Pius III, who was a true successor of Julius... Pope to be a causing contributor to the papacy as a compromise candidate the following features be! The murder of two women Monte in Rome in 1487 as permanent home at that time reported that shared. Existence of animal gratification untrammelled by any unpleasant duties and the subsequent unleashing of Roman.