In January 1737, the Spanish troops withdrew from Tuscany, and were replaced by 6,000 Austrians. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Francis I (Francis Stephen; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) [1] was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions.With his wife, Maria Theresa, he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. Francis II (1768 - 1835?) Maria Theresa was the eldest daughter of the Holy Roman emperor Charles VI and Elizabeth of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor 3= 3. Anúncios relacionados a: Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor wikipedia On January 24, 1737 Francis received Tuscany from his father-in-law.Until then, Maria Theresa was Duchess of Lorraine. Airchduchess Maria Christina o Austrick (1742–1798) mairit Prince Albert Casimir August o Saxony, Duke o Teschen an haed issue. Maria Anna of Bavaria 11. Upon her accession, the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48) erupted, challenging her inheritance of the Habsburg lands. Francis II (German: Franz II., Erwählter Römischer Kaiser) (12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he dissolved the Holy Roman Empire after the decisive defeat at the hands of the First French Empire led … Emperor Francis died on 18 August 1765, while he and the court were in Innsbruck celebrating the wedding of his second son, Leopold. She emerged from it, her zeal for activity nowise impaired. Francis’ uncle, Joseph II, the Holy Roman Emperor, had no surviving children. He abdicated to declare himself Emperor of Austria because of Napoleon forming the Confederation of the Rhine. The Diet was convoked simply to supply money…. Because of French objections to the union of Lorraine with the Habsburg lands, Francis Stephen had to exchange his ancestral duchy for the right of succession to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Carlos III, pretender to the throne of Spain, later HRE Charles VI, 1711 ... the first Czech Holy Roman Emperor (1346-78). Moreover, she had entered into a treaty with Russia, a newcomer to European rivalries. The oldest surviving son of Leopold, Duke of Lorraine Biography. Son of the future emperor Leopold II and Maria Luisa of Spain, Francis received his political education from his uncle, Emperor Joseph II, who disliked his nephew’s unimaginative outlook and stubbornness but praised his application and sense of duty and justice. Francis II was the last emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. Maria Theresa led Austria through this and two other wars, preserving the bulk of Habsburg territory in the face of a series of militarily superior opponents. Though Francis had not been a faithful husband, Maria Theresa never wavered in her love, and his sudden death in 1765 plunged her into prolonged grief. Although the abdication was considered legal, the dissolution of the imperial bonds was not and several states refused… He supported the conservative political system of Metternich in Germany and Europe after the Congress of Vienna. Leopold II (Peter Leopold Joseph Anton Joachim Pius Gotthard; 5 May 1747 – 1 March 1792) was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Bohemia, and Archduke of Austria from 1790 to 1792, and Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1765 to 1790. They had sixteen children who are named here: Holy Roman Empress, German Queen, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Grand Duchess of Tuscany as the spouse of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor. Thus in 1784, at the age of 16, he was sent to Vienna to be trained as a future king. 3. Family: Spouse/Ex-: Maria Theresa father: Leopold, Duke of Lorraine children: Archduchess Maria Amalia of Austria, Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria, Archduchess Maria Johanna Gabriela of Austria, Archduchess Maria Josepha of Austria, Archduke Maximilian Francis of Austria, Duchess of Teschen, Holy Roman Emperor, Joseph II, Leopold II, Maria Carolina of Austria, Maria Christina, Marie Antoinette Francis II (Franz; 12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he dissolved the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation after the decisive defeat at the hands of Joseph II (German: Josef Benedikt Anton Michel Adam; English: Joseph Benedict Anthony Michael Adam; 13 March 1741 – 20 February 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from August 1765 and sole ruler of the Habsburg lands from November 1780 until his death. In 1804, he had founded the Austrian Empire and became Francis I (Franz I. Therefore, the crown had to eventually rest on young Francis’ head. The standard designation of the Holy Roman Emperor was "August Emperor of the Romans" (Romanorum Imperator Augustus). dynasty. Again defeated by France (1799–1801), he elevated Austria to the status of an empire (1804) soon after Napoleon had made himself emperor of the French. Updates? Formerly HRE Francis II. Omissions? She was the eldest daughter of Ferdinand IV & III of Naples and Sicily (later Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies) (1751–1825) and Marie Caroline of Austria (1752–1814). (Since nearly every major European nation coveted some part of the Habsburg domains, their consent to the Pragmatic Sanction must be taken as nothing more than an act of convenience.) Francis became Holy Roman Emperor in 1792 upon the death of his father, Leopold II. Her successful appearance before the refractory Hungarian Estates, ending with an appeal for a mass levy of troops, gave her a European reputation for diplomatic skill. She was the final Holy Roman Empress and the first Empress of Austria through her marriage to Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor. He is the only son of his father and predecessor, Francis II … Although she could not reign as Holy Roman empress in her own right, she was groomed from an early age to preserve Habsburg territory and influence. Her father, the future Charles III of Spain, had become King of Naples … He assumed the title of Emperor of Austria in response to the coronation of Napoleon as Emperor of the French . We Francis II., by the grace of God elected Roman Emperor, &c, &c. After the conclusion of the Peace of Pressburg Our whole care and attention was directed to the most complete discharge, with wonted good faith and conscientiousness, of all the engagements which We had entered into thereby, to securing the blessings of peace for Our people, to maintaining on all sides the … The dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire occurred de facto on August 6, 1806, when Emperor Franz II abdicated his Imperial title and released all imperial states and officials from their oaths and obligations to the empire. The crypt that houses the sarcophagus is the official resting place of the Habsburg line, some 150 members of which were laid to rest there. Wikimedia Foundation. Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor 12 kreutzer 1800 20mm.jpg 4,230 × 2,168; 819 KB Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor 3 kreutzer 1800 30mm.jpg 5,772 × … He supported the conservative political system of Metternich in Germany and Europe after the Congress of Vienna (1815). Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Wi his wife, Maria Theresa, he wis the foonder o the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. On 6 January 1788, to Elisabeth of Württemberg(21 April 1767 – 18 February 1790). Franz Joseph Karl, 1768-1835, aus dem Haus Habsburg-Lothringen war... Franz Stephan of Lorraine, December 8, 1708-18. Joseph II, Haly Roman Emperor (1741–1790) mairit (1) Princess Isabella o Parma then (2) Princess Maria Josepha o Bavarie an haed issue. Francis I (Francis Stephen; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real power of those positions. Francis II, (born February 12, 1768, Florence—died March 2, 1835, Vienna), the last Holy Roman emperor (1792–1806) and, as Francis I, emperor of Austria (1804–35); he was also, as Francis, king of Hungary (1792–1830) and king of Bohemia (1792–1836). Although Francis despised Napoleon as an upstart, he did not for reasons of state dare to refuse him the hand of his daughter Marie-Louise, whom Napoleon married in 1810. When Leopold died with tragic suddenness in 1792, his young son, Francis, delivered a coronation oath that went through the motions of conforming, but soon afterward he returned to the old ways. Maria Theresa’s father was the Holy Roman emperor Charles VI, and her mother was Elizabeth of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. Maria Theresa of Austria Queen of Hungary & … Francis II (German: Franz II. Her refusal to negotiate with Frederick II (later the Great) of Prussia, who had invaded Silesia, her most prosperous province, appalled the senescent councillors of her late father. Leopold II was born on 5 May 1747, in Vienna, Austria, Holy Roman Empire, to Francis I and Maria Theresa. In step with the enforced retreat of the church from secular affairs, she came to feel that it was incumbent on the state to control the intellectual life of its subjects. Infanta Maria Luisa of Spain (Spanish: María Luisa, German: Maria Ludovika) (24 November 1745 – 15 May 1792) was Holy Roman Empress, German Queen, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Grand Duchess of Tuscany as the spouse of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor. The final Holy Roman Emperor-elect, Francis II, abdicated in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars that saw the Empire's final dissolution. Francis II., the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Maria-Theresa, The Catholic Encylopedia - Biography of Maria Theresa, History's Heroes? Maria Theresa was devastated. Check out this biography to know about his birthday, childhood, family life, achievements and fun facts about him. Thus, the ancien régime that had come to an end in France in 1789 ended in Germany also. Realizing the need for a sizable standing army and in order to maintain one, Maria Theresa accepted the plans of Count Friedrich Wilhelm Haugwitz—the first in a succession of remarkable men of intellect she was to draw into her council. It was she who institutionalized government censorship; on the other hand, it was she, too, who launched plans for compulsory primary education. (She was the last of the Catholic monarchs to close its establishments.) Francis himself was present at many of the battles of 1813–14, which finally destroyed the French emperor’s power. The dowager empresses, her aunt Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg and grandmother Eleonor Magdalene … His life in Vienna was different from his happy and easygoing childhood. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Maximilian I was the King of Romans who served as the Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death in 1519. With his wife, Maria Theresa of Austria , he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. Only many years later did peasant riots in famine-stricken Bohemia, as well as the reported cruelty of Hungarian magnates, cause her to limit the use of forced labour. Last Roman Emperor and first Emperor of Austria (Francis I. Franz II would be the last Holy Roman Emperor. The wedding was held on February 14, 1736. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. An absolutist who hated constitutionalism in any form, he supported Austria’s first coalition war against France (1792–97), sometimes taking the field himself, until forced to accept the Treaty of Campo Formio (1797), by which the empire lost Lombardy and the left bank of the Rhine. On 6 January 1808, he married again to another fir… Maria Louisa of Spain 4= 4. Francis II, (born February 12, 1768, Florence—died March 2, 1835, Vienna), the last Holy Roman emperor (1792–1806) and, as Francis I, emperor of Austria (1804–35); he was also, as Francis, king of Hungary (1792–1830) and king of Bohemia (1792–1836). Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Hungary: Francis I: the reform generation. The marriage was a love match, and 16 children were born to the couple, of whom 10 survived to adulthood. Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily (6 June 1772 – 13 April 1807) was the last Holy Roman Empress and the first Empress of Austria by marriage to Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Francis I (Francis Stephen; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) [1] was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions.With his wife, Maria Theresa, he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. In 1753, Leopold II was engaged to be married to Maria Beatrice d'Este. Omissions? Maria Theresa was born in Vienna, Austria, on 13 May 1717.Her parents were Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor and Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.Her father had made the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713, a decree which allowed a female ruler despite the Salic law prohibition.. Maria Theresa married Duke Francis Stephan I of Lorraine for love. His marriage to Maria Theresa, who was Charles’s heiress, took place on Feb. 12, 1736. August 1765, was first from Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Károly), the last King of Croatia, last King of Bohemia (as Charles III, Czech: Karel III. This contest with Prussia was followed by two more, the Seven Years’ War (1756–63) and the War of the Bavarian Succession (1778–79), which further checked Austrian power. Holy Roman Empress, German Queen, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Grand Duchess of Tuscany as the spouse of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor. 3. Charles VI (1 October 1685 – 20 October 1740) succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia (as Charles II), King of Hungary and Croatia (as Charles III), and King of Serbia (as Charles I) , Archduke of Austria, etc., in 1711. After Austria took the field against Napoleon for the third time in 1805 and was again defeated, Napoleon dictated the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire; Francis abdicated his title in 1806. On 15 September 1790, to his double first cousin Maria Teresa of the Two Sicilies (6 June 1772 – 13 April 1807), daughter of King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies (both were grandchildren of Empress Maria Theresaand shared all of their other grandparents in common), with whom he had twelve children, of whom only seven reached adulthood. The (secret) treaty between the Emperor and Francis was signed on May 4, 1736. She approved drastic changes that her physician, the Dutchman Gerhard van Swieten, carried through at the universities (such as the introduction of textbooks, the linking of the medical school of the University of Vienna with the embryonic public health service, and the sovereign’s right to veto the election of deans by the faculties) even as he took them out of the hands of the Jesuits, to whose Society she herself was devoted. Ascending to the throne on the death of his father in 1792, Francis inherited the problems raised by the French Revolution. Born in Portici, in … Charles VI (1 October 1685 – 20 October 1740) succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia (as Charles II), King of Hungary and Croatia (as Charles III), and King of Serbia (as Charles I) , Archduke of Austria, etc., in 1711. It was sold misattributed as under Wencezlaus II. Francis I (Francis Stephen; German: Franz Stefan; French: François Étienne; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was the Duke of Lorraine and Bar (1729–1737), and later Grand Duke of Tuscany (1737–1765), who married Maria Theresa of Austria and became Holy Roman Emperor (1745–1765) and Archduke of Austria (1740–1765). ), Francis was the son of Leopold II., whom he succeeded in 1792. Leopold II (German: Peter Leopold Josef Anton Joachim Pius Gotthard; Italian: Pietro Leopoldo Giuseppe Antonio Gioacchino Pio Gottardo; Scots: Peter Leopold Joseph Anthony Joachim Pius Godehard; 5 Mey 1747 – 1 Mairch 1792), wis Haly Roman Emperor an Keeng o Hungary an Bohemie frae 1790 tae 1792, Airchduke o Austrick an Grand Duke o Tuscany frae 1765 tae 1790. Francis II (Franz; 12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he dissolved the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation after the decisive defeat at the hands of the First French Empire led by … Charles was the last surviving prince of his line, and, in an effort to preserve the Habsburg dominions, he issued the Pragmatic Sanction to allow Maria Theresa to succeed him. The year 1809 saw Austria’s fourth unsuccessful war against Napoleon, during which Francis, always distrustful of revolutionary or even popular movements, abandoned pro-Habsburg Tirolese rebels to France and Bavaria. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Albert V, Duke of Bavaria (= 12) 5. When the elector Charles Albert of Bavaria—one of the princes who had joined Frederick in assaulting Habsburg territories—was elected emperor, Maria Theresa was mortified; that dignity, little more than titular by then, had in practice been hereditary in her family for 300 years. Francis II married four times: 1. In a famous “reversal of alliances” (1756) she threw over England, the old ally and “banker” of the Habsburgs, and allied herself with France, their ancient foe. Maria Theresa thus became a pawn on Europe’s political chessboard. The naive courage with which Maria Theresa assumed her heritage (and made her husband co-regent) astounded Europe’s chancelleries. From 1728 until 1737 he was Duke of Lorraine, but lost Lorraine when he had to give it to France. dynasty. Francis II, the last Holy Roman emperor (1792-1806) and, as Francis I, emperor of Austria (1804-35); he was also, as Francis, king of Hungary (1792-1830) and king of Bohemia (1792-1836). Their eldest son, Joseph, became Holy Roman Emperor Repressing liberalism and reinstituting much of the power of the Roman Catholic church lost under Joseph II, Francis was nevertheless a patron of the arts and sciences, and he did not hesitate to introduce innovations, such as steamships on the Danube, or to show an interest in the development of railroads. French and British armies engaged at the Battle of Dettingen, June 27, 1743, during the War of the Austrian Succession. She paid but scant attention to the global ramifications of the ensuing Seven Years’ War. ), and the last monarch belonging to the House of Habsburg-Lorraine before the dissolution of Austria-Hungary. Francis I (Francis Stephen; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real power of those positions.With his wife, Maria Theresa of Austria, he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. When she was 18, she married Francis Stephen of Lorraine. Francis I (German: Franz Stefan; Italian: Francesco Stefano; English: Francis Stephen; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions., though his wife … S. B., was Holy Roman Emperor ("Romanorum Imperator") from 1014 until his death in 1024 and the last member of The Ottonian Dynasty of Emperors, as he had no children. An enlarged central administration—from which the judiciary was separated in 1749—and a repeatedly reorganized treasury required knowledgeable civil servants and judges; and their training was, to her mind, the sole purpose of higher education. ; 12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor from 1792 to 1806 and, as Francis I, the first Emperor of Austria from 1804 to 1835. The death of an only son prompted Charles, the only living prince of his line, to promulgate the so-called Pragmatic Sanction, a royal act, eventually recognized by most powers, whereby female issue was entitled to succeed to the domains of the Habsburgs. He had to eventually rest on young Francis ’ head the Empire 's final dissolution childhood, life. Offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica into a treaty with Russia, a newcomer francis ii, holy roman emperor spouse European rivalries in during. 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