Of the twenty-seven cardinals alive in the closing months of the reign of Innocent VIII no fewer than ten were Cardinal-nephews, eight were crown nominees, four were Roman nobles and one other had been given the cardinalate in recompense for his family's service to the Holy See; only four were able career churchmen. It was the largest papal conclave in history and the first since 1721 in which three future popes participated. Already by four o’clock on that afternoon when I saw the corpse, again, its face had changed to the color of mulberry or the blackest cloth and it was covered in blue-black spots. Lucrezia was considered just as lustful and murderous as the rest of the Borgias. During that period, the four wax candles next to it burned right down, and the complexion of the dead man became increasingly foul and black. It was the largest papal conclave in history and the first since 1721 in which three future popes participated. At the time of the Pope's death, five Cardinals were present, along with bishops, grooms, and members of his papal curia. A look behind the beautiful velvet robes, gold threads, marble statues, intoxicating incense, tasty body of Christ, and sinfully unforgiving dogma of the Catholic church. It also demanded Catholicism “be everywhere increased and spread, that the health of souls be cared for and that barbarous nations be overthrown and brought to the faith itself.”. On April 8th, 1455, shortly after being made a cardinal, Alfons … The Death of Pope Alexander VI, 1503 eyewitness. In the initial years after assuming papacy, he maintained the strict administration of justice and orderly government. There was change in the constitution of the College of Cardinals during the course of the fifteenth century, especially under Sixtus IV and Innocent VIII. Finally his stomach and bowels bled profusely." In the year 1499 alone, Cesare ordered the executions of a Spanish constable, a soldier-captain, and a bishop, among others -possibly for sport. There, several descendants of the Borgias became notable poets, artists, and activists. As soon as the procession halted in the Basilica, the bier was placed towards the end of the building, but it proved impossible for the clergy to begin the service with the words, ‘Enter not into judgement.’. The conclave believed he was strongly opposed to the nepotism that had been a feature of previous popes. Alexander VI, given name Rodrigo Borgia, Roman Catholic Pope from 1492 until his death, is the most memorable of the corrupt and secular popes of the Renaissance. The ebbs and flows in his fever caused his doctors to diagnose him with "tertian ague," or malaria, with symptoms reappearing every 48 hours. . Early on August 17th, he was given some medicine, but he worsened and at about six o’clock on the following morning, he made his confession to Don Pietro Gamboa, the Bishop of Carinola, who then celebrated Mass in His Holiness’s presence. When Caterina’s son was taken and tortured in front of her by the Borgias to get her to capitulate, she raised her dress , showed vagina and screamed. On August 11, 1492, at 61 years of age, Rodrigo was elevated as Pope Alexander VI. The Retrial of Joan of Arc, also known as the “nullification trial” or “rehabilitation trial”, was a posthumous retrial of Joan of Arc authorized by Pope Callixtus III at the request of Inquisitor-General Jean Bréhal and Joan’s mother Isabelle Romée. The nose was swollen, the mouth distended where the tongue was doubled over, and the lips seemed to fill everything. ... (‘Either Caesar or nothing’) as his motto, he was one of the illegitimate sons of Pope Alexander VI by Vanozza Catanei. Quart. Arsenic poison, if dosed right, didn't kill instantly. The purpose of the retrial was to investigate whether the trial of condemnation and its verdict had been handled justly and according to ecclesiastical law. When Alexander VI fell ill in August 1503, at least he had some company. Soon, however, he started to bestow lands, power, and wealth to his relatives. He Kept Multiple Mistresses. But Alexander VI's symptoms aligned with ones seen in malaria too, which spread through much of Rome at the time. He openly acknowledged fathering a bevy of children by his mistress, Vannozza dei Cattanei, and later enjoyed the legendary affections of Giulia Farnese, … Even today, people still wonder, "How did Pope Alexander VI die, given the mysterious circumstances of the days before his death?" Pope Alexander VI's death, while a source of intrigue and mystery, also gave the people of Rome much to celebrate, because hated the corrupt leader and his ties to the notorious Borgia clan. Burchard and a colleague dress the Pope’s body and leave it in a Vatican courtyard. They found the crown and two precious tiaras, all the rings which the pope wore for Mass, the credence-vessels for his use in celebrating and enough indeed to fill eight coffers. On the fifth day, August 18, Alexander VI confessed, heard mass from his bed, took the Eucharist, and then lost consciousness. Rodrigo Lanzol Borgia, as Pope Alexander VI, during 1492–1503 Alfons Borja was elected pope in 1455, and took the name Callixtus III. In 1978, Pope Paul VI died. Rodrigo adopted his mother's family name of Borj… Nor did he deny that he was the father of his children. Cesare was well-connected among the artists of the Renaissance and by all accounts, a very handsome man. Burchurad’s account appears in: Burchard Johann, At the Court of the Borgia, Geoffrey Parker editor and translator (1963); Chamberlin, E. R., The Fall of the House of Borgia (1974); Manchester, William, A World Lit Only by Fire: the medieval mind and the Renaissance : portrait of an age (1992). Early on August 17th, he was given some medicine, but he worsened and at about six o'clock on the following morning, he made his confession to Don Pietro Gamboa, the Bishop of Carinola, who then celebrated Mass in His Holiness's presence. Throughout the whole of the pope’s illness, Don Cesare never visited his father, nor again after his death, whilst His Holiness for his part never once made the slightest reference to Cesare or Lucrezia [the Pope’s illegitimate daughter].“Burchard and a colleague dress the Pope’s body and leave it in a Vatican courtyard. He was made a cardinal in 1456 by his uncle, Pope Calixtus III, and was elected as pope in August 1492. Yes there was. Two of his younger brothers also had motives, but historically, their guilt was never proven. . His illegitimate son, Cesare, got sick, too, along with the Cardinal who hosted the dinner party preceding their illnesses. The pope himself was said to be in attendance, and prizes were given to those who could “perform the act most often with the courtesans.”. The new Pope loved the good life. [For details of the conclave see Pastor, "Hist. The latter was born in Xàtiva (Játiva), near Valencia, but spent most of his life in Italy and tends to be known as Rodrigo Borgia the Italian version of his name. Known For: Borgia was the daughter of Pope Alexander VI and an important Italian noblewoman. Johann Burchard was a Papal Master of Ceremonies from 1483 to his death in 1506. Trying to rid Alexander VI of his illness and re-balance his humours, the doctors let his blood. Calixtus made him a cardinal in 1456. The most famous of his offspring were his son Cesare, noted for the murder of political rivals, and his daughter Lucrezia who was married off to a number of husbands for political gain. He openly acknowledged fathering a bevy of children by his mistress, Vannozza dei Cattanei, and later enjoyed the legendary affections of Giulia Farnese, … Machiavelli worked as a diplomat in the service of the Florentine government. Machiavelli used his power to procure commissions for Leonardo and even appointed him Florence’s military engineer between 1502 and 1503. These carried the body from the chapel straight into the middle of the Basilica.. . As is Vatican custom, the College of Cardinals went into the conclave and began to decide who would be the next pope. Pope Alexander VI: A Spanish-born pontiff from the powerful Borgia family, Pope Alexander VI was infamous for his libertine behavior and nepotism.The latter was … Four confessors recited the Office of the Dead as they sat on the window-frame with their hands resting on the pope’s litter, which was supported by paupers who stood at hand gazing at the body [it was customary to pay paupers to attend funerals]. The family moved to Italy upon Alfons Borja’s election to pope, and changed their name from Borja to the more Italian-friendly Borgia. Therefore, Alexander VI made no secret of his affairs both before and during his reign as pope. Politically ambitious and not above lies and treachery, it wasn’t long before the Borgias  became rivals of Italy’s other noble families. Though Cesare was said to be the most barbaric of the Borgia clan, he became both a military leader and a cardinal–two incompatible, but very influential positions. After the fourth ballot was submitted, Cardinal Albino Luciani was elected as the next Bishop of Rome. They therefore started the response, ‘Free me, 0 Lord,’ but as they were chanting, some of the palace guards seized the tapers. Cath. On this we laid the body of the pontiff, with three of the cushions to support him and the old tapestry again as a coveting. ; Born: April 18, 1480 in Rome, Italy; Parents: Cardinal Rodrigo de Borgia (Pope Alexander VI) and Vannozza dei Cattanei; Died: June 24, 1519 in Ferrara, Italy; Spouse(s): Giovanni Sforza (m. 1493–1497), Alfonso of Aragon (m. 1498–1500), Alfonso d'Este (m. 1502–1519) Alexander VI was born Rodrigo de Borja y Borja in 1431 and made a cardinal at age 25 by his uncle, Pope Callistus III, who reigned in 1455-58.. Once pope, Alexander VI … He is one of the most controversial of the Renaissance popes, and his italianized surname - Borgia - became a byword for the debased standards of the Papacy of that era, most notoriously the Banquet of Chestnuts in 1501. Flight Disturbances: The Break Ups and Break Downs of Astronauts, The Law of the Twelve Tables: LEX DUO′DECIM TABULA′RUM, Jack Ruby Trial Pt 2 Pre Trial and Jail break, Jack Ruby, The Original Trial of the Century pt1. His family name is written Llançol in Catalan or Valencian and Lanzol in Castillian Spanish. A notorious reputation precedes her, and she is inextricably, … Did Pope Alexander VI become a saint? [For details of the conclave see Pastor, "Hist. In the meantime, the body of the pope had remained for a long time, as I have described, between the railings of the high altar. of the Popes", (German ed., Freiburg, 1895), III, 275-278; also Am. Much speculation arose that someone poisoned his Holiness; there were several theories about why someone would do that, but two of the most popular were the fact that he had many enemies and the fact that he, the head of the church, also poisoned many people. Pope Alexander VI - Biography. Investigations started in 1452, and a formal appeal followed in November 1455. He died on August 18. He hired Leonardo da Vinci to be his military architect and engineer in 1502. Among his deeds was ordering a posthumous re-trial for Joan of Arc, which found her innocent of heresy. Alexander and Cesare allegedly spiked the wine with cantarella, a poison akin to arsenic and the go-to choice of the Borgias. 1. Despite the reputation of his later family members , he was considered a pious and dedicated pontiff. The pope’s body was abandoned.With the help of three others, I took hold of the bier and moved it into a position between the high altar and the papal seat so that the pope’s head was close to the altar. Cardinal Cornetto got sick, too, which fueled rumors of a poisoning gone wrong. On June 14, 1497, Giovanni Borgia, brother to Cesare and Lucrezia, was found with his throat slit and about nine stab wounds in his torso. Giovanni Borgia, 2nd Duke of Gandia, was the favorite son of Pope Alexander VI and a married woman. References: He sired at least twelve children through a number of mistresses. "Alexander VI's stomach became swollen and turned to liquid, while his face became wine-coloured and his skin began to peel off. Pope Alexander VI - Biography. John Burchard, a sort of living papal Captain's Log, recorded Alexander VI's gruesome death. \"On Saturday morning, August 12th, the pope felt unwell, and at about three o'clock in the afternoon he became feverish. Alexander died at the age of 72 on the 18 th of August 1503. Alexander VI was born Rodrigo de Borja y Borja in 1431 and made a cardinal at age 25 by his uncle, Pope Callistus III, who reigned in 1455-58.. Once pope, Alexander VI … Alfons Borja was elected pope in 1455, and took the name Callixtus III. Alexander VI and his son Cesare Borgia emerged as two of the most feared and hated figures in Italy during the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, leading some to believe Pope Alexander VI's cause of death was assassination. Pope Alexander VI was in constant need of money – to support his lavish life style, to fill the coffers for his political bribes and to fund his various military campaigns. Pope Alexander VI died a year later, in August 1503. The sale of Cardinalships and indulgences were also a major source of cash. Machiavelli was hoping to harness Leonardo’s ingenuity to capture Pisa, a fledgling city-state which Florentine leaders had been eager to subdue for decades. 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